协和医学杂志

2014, v.5(02) 135-141

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全膝关节置换术围手术期异体输血率及其影响因素
Allogeneic Transfusion Rate and Related Factors in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

彭慧明;翁习生;翟吉良;林进;金今;钱文伟;赵丽娟;
PENG Hui-ming;WENG Xi-sheng;ZHAI Ji-liang;LIN Jin;JIN Jin;QIAN Wen-wei;ZHAO Li-juan;Department of Orthopedics,Peking Union Medical College Hospital,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College;

摘要(Abstract):

目的调查全膝关节置换术(total knee arthroplasty,TKA)围手术期异体输血率并分析其相关影响因素。方法回顾性分析北京协和医院骨科2005年1月至2011年12月临床资料完整的初次TKA患者共1165例,其中男217例,女948例;平均年龄62.4岁(16~92岁)。调查患者围手术期异体输血率。对纳入研究的617例单侧TKA病例的自变量(包括34个影响因素)和因变量(住院期间异体输血)进行统计分析,用多因素Logistic回归分析确定住院期间异体输血的影响因素。结果 1165例TKA手术患者总异体输血率为58.2%(678/1165),平均异体输血量为2.7 U(1~13 U)。其中695例单侧TKA患者异体输血率为40.0%(278/695);470例一期双侧TKA患者异体输血率为85.1%(400/470)。共617例单侧TKA病例进入统计分析,单因素分析显示患者年龄(P<0.0001)、术前血红蛋白水平(P<0.0001)、术前血细胞比容(P<0.0001)、美国麻醉医师学会(American Society of Anesthesiologists,ASA)评分≥3分(P=0.004)、手术时间(P=0.004)和止血带时间(P=0.050)与异体输血呈显著相关;多因素Logistic回归分析证实异体输血和年龄(P<0.0001)、术前血红蛋白水平(P<0.0001)、手术时间(P<0.0001)之间呈显著相关。结论 TKA围手术期异体输血率较高。一期双膝同期置换更需注意术后贫血事件的发生。通过评估患者年龄、血红蛋白水平及手术时间,有利于预测术后异体输血的需求。
Objective To evaluate the transfusion rates and identify perioperative factors associated with allogeneic blood transfusion( AllTx) after primary total knee arthroplasty( TKA) with routine use of low-molecular-weight heparins. Methods We retrospectively studied the transfusion rate of 1165 consecutive patients who underwent primary TKA between January 2005 and December 2011. Totally 34 independent variables were analyzed in 617 primary unilateral TKAs without autologous blood predonation for requirement of AllTx. Multiple regression analysis model was used to identify risk factors associated with perioperative blood transfusion. Results Overall,58. 2%( 678 /1165) of patients required AllTx. The median number of units transfused was 2. 7 U( range: 1 to 13 U). The AllTx rate was 40. 0%( 278/695) in unilateral TKA procedures and 85. 1%( 400/470) in one-stage bilateral TKA procedures. Univariate analysis demonstrated the risk of transfusion was independentlypredicted by the patients' age at surgery( P < 0. 0001),preoperative hematocrit( P < 0. 0001),preoperative hemoglobin concentration( P < 0. 0001),American Society of Anesthesiologists( ASA) score ≥3( P = 0. 004), surgical time( P = 0. 004),and tourniquet time( P = 0. 050). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis confirmed significant relationship between allogeneic blood transfusion and age( P < 0. 0001),preoperative hemoglobin( P <0. 0001),and surgical time( P <0. 0001). Conclusions AllTx rate is high in TKA procedures,especially in one-stage bilateral TKA procedures. Patient's age,preoperative hemoglobin level,and surgical time are helpful in identifying high-risk patients who require postoperative blood transfusion.

关键词(KeyWords): 膝关节;关节成形术;围手术期;异体输血;影响因素
knee joint;arthroplasty;perioperation;allogeneic transfusion;influencing factor

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基金项目(Foundation): 卫生部部属(管)医疗机构临床学科重点项目建设专项资金(2012002005)

作者(Author): 彭慧明;翁习生;翟吉良;林进;金今;钱文伟;赵丽娟;
PENG Hui-ming;WENG Xi-sheng;ZHAI Ji-liang;LIN Jin;JIN Jin;QIAN Wen-wei;ZHAO Li-juan;Department of Orthopedics,Peking Union Medical College Hospital,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College;

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