协和医学杂志

2015, v.6(05) 361-368

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组织灌注导向红细胞输注策略对重症患者预后的影响
Effect of Tissue Perfusion Oriented Red Blood Cell Transfusion Strategy on Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients

周翔;刘大为;隆云;苏龙翔;程卫;张青;
ZHOU Xiang;LIU Da-wei;LONG Yun;SU Long-xiang;CHENG Wei;ZHANG Qing;Department of Critical Care Medicine,Peking Union Medical College Hospital,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College;

摘要(Abstract):

目的比较依据美国东部创伤外科学会/美国重症医学院/美国重症医学联合会(Eastern Association for Surgery of Trauma/American College of Critical Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine,EAST/ACCM/SCCM)成人创伤与重症患者输血指南(2009年)的红细胞(red blood cell,RBC)输注策略与组织灌注导向的RBC输注策略对重症患者预后影响的差异。方法北京协和医院重症医学科在2013年采用依据EAST/ACCM/SCCM成人创伤与重症患者输血指南(2009年)的RBC输注策略指导临床输血,2014年采用组织灌注导向的RBC输注策略指导临床输血。比较两年所有重症监护病房(intensive care unit,ICU)患者和急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分Ⅱ(Acute Physiology and Chronic Health EvaluationⅡ,APACHEⅡ)≥15分患者的住院死亡率、ICU停留时间、新发的器官功能损伤发病率、输RBC前平均血红蛋白(hemoglobin,Hb)水平、入ICU血乳酸水平(Lac入)、输RBC前血乳酸水平(Lac输RBC前)、人均RBC输注量,以及输血相关并发症发生率。结果2014年ICU收治患者2638例,2013年2110例。2014年患者平均入ICU APACHEⅡ评分及APACHEⅡ评分≥15分患者占所有患者比例均高于2013年(P<0.05)。2014年输注RBC患者占所有患者比例显著低于2013年(P<0.05)。两年间输血前Hb水平、Lac入、Lac入<4 mmol/L患者占所有患者比例差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。2014年Lac输RBC前显著高于2013年[(4.16±1.18)mmol/L比(2.78±1.03)mmol/L,P=0.031],2014年输RBC患者中Lac入<4 mmol/L患者占所有患者比例显著低于2013年(20.5%比33.4%,P=0.018),人均RBC输注量2014年比2013年显著下降[(1.02±0.51)U比(1.55±0.70)U,P=0.037]。全部ICU患者两年间住院死亡率差异无统计学意义(2.77%比2.39%,P=0.749),但平均ICU停留时间2014年明显较短[(5.31±1.98)d比(6.84±2.36)d,P=0.025];新发的急性肾损伤、急性肝损伤、急性心肌损伤及急性肺损伤的发病率两年间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。而在APACHEⅡ≥15分患者中,2014年住院死亡率比2013年显著降低(7.00%比12.01%,P=0.018),平均ICU停留时间显著短于2013年[(7.16±3.53)d比(12.44±5.27)d,P<0.001],新发的急性肾损伤、急性心肌损伤及急性肺损伤的发病率也显著低于2013年(P<0.05)。两年均未发生输血相关感染及输血相关性溶血的不良事件。总ICU患者及APACHEⅡ≥15分患者的非溶血性发热性输血反应及输血相关肺损伤发病率两年间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论组织灌注导向的RBC输注策略与EAST/ACCM/SCCM指南指导下的RBC输注策略相比,能够有效降低ICU患者RBC输注量,缩短ICU停留时间,特别是对APACHEⅡ≥15分的重症ICU患者,还能有效降低其住院死亡率,降低新发急性肾损伤、急性心肌损伤及急性肺损伤的发病率,而不增加输血相关并发症发生率。
Objective To compare the effects of Eastern Association for Surgery of Trauma/AmericanCollege of Critical Care Medicine / Society of Critical Care Medicine( EAST / ACCM / SCCM) red blood cell transfusion in adult trauma and critical care guidelines( 2009) guided red blood cell( RBC) transfusion strategy and tissue perfusion oriented RBC transfusion strategy in critically ill patients. Methods In 2013,RBC transfusion in Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital followed the EAST / ACCM / SCCM guidelines recommendation in critically ill patients,and in 2014 tissue perfusion oriented RBC transfusion strategy was adopted. The in-hospital mortality,length of Intensive Care Unit( ICU) stay,incidence of new organ injury,mean pre-transfusion hemoglobin( Hb) level,blood lactate acid level upon admission( Lac admitted),pre-transfusion blood lactate acid level( Lac pre-transfusion),mean RBC transfusion volume,and incidence of transfusion-related complications in all ICU patients and patients with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ( APACHE Ⅱ) ≥15 were compared between the year 2013 and the year 2014. Results In 2013 and 2014,2110 and 2638 patients were admitted to ICU,respectively. The mean APACHE Ⅱ score upon admission and the proportion of patients with APACHE Ⅱ ≥15 were both higher in 2014 than in 2013( P <0. 05). The proportion of patients treated with RBC transfusion was significantly lower in 2014 than in 2013( P < 0. 05). The mean pre-transfusion Hb level,Lac admitted,and the proportion of patients with Lac admitted< 4 mmol / L showed no significant difference between the two years( P > 0. 05). Lac pre-transfusion in 2014 was significantly higher than that in 2013 [( 4. 16 ± 1. 18) mmol / L vs.( 2. 78 ± 1. 03) mmol / L,P = 0. 031]. In the patients treated with RBC transfusion,the proportion of patients with Lac admitted < 4 mmol / L was significantly lower in 2014 than in 2013( 20. 5% vs. 33. 4%,P = 0. 018). The mean RBC transfusion volume was significant lower in 2014 than in 2013 [( 1. 02 ± 0. 51) U vs.( 1. 55 ± 0. 70) U,P = 0. 037]. The in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between the two years in all ICU patients( 2. 77% vs. 2. 39%,P = 0. 749),but the mean length of ICU stay was significantly shorter in 2014 than in 2013 [( 5. 31 ± 1. 98) d vs.( 6. 84 ± 2. 36) d,P = 0. 025]. The incidences of new onset acute kidney injury,acute liver injury,acute myocardial injury,and acute lung injury showed no significant difference between the two years( P > 0. 05). In patients with APACHEⅡ≥15,the in-hospital mortality was significant lower( 7. 00% vs. 12. 01%,P = 0. 018) and the length of ICU stay significantly shorter in 2014 than in 2013 [( 7. 16 ± 3. 53) d vs.( 12. 44 ± 5. 27) d,P < 0. 001]; the incidences of new onset acute kidney injury,acute myocardial injury,and acute lung injury were significantly lower in 2014( P < 0. 05). No transfusion-related infection or hemolysis occurred in the two years. The incidences of non-hemolytic febrile transfusion reaction and transfusion-related lung injury in all the ICU patients and patients with APACHE Ⅱ ≥15 were not significantly different between the two years( P > 0. 05). Conclusions Compared with EAST / ACCM / SCCM guideline based RBC transfusion strategy,tissue perfusion oriented RBC transfusion strategy in critically ill patients can reduce RBC transfusion volume and shorten length of ICU stay. Especially for ICU patient with APACHE Ⅱ ≥15,it can also reduce in-hospital mortality and incidences of new onset acute kidney injury,acute myocardial injury,and acute lung injury,without increasing the incidence of transfusion-related complications.

关键词(KeyWords): 组织灌注;乳酸;红细胞;急性肾损害;急性心肌损害;急性肺损伤
tissue perfusion;lactate acid;red blood cell;acute kidney injury;acute myocardial injury;acute lung injury

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基金项目(Foundation): 卫生公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201202011)

作者(Author): 周翔;刘大为;隆云;苏龙翔;程卫;张青;
ZHOU Xiang;LIU Da-wei;LONG Yun;SU Long-xiang;CHENG Wei;ZHANG Qing;Department of Critical Care Medicine,Peking Union Medical College Hospital,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College;

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